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Essay on Maharaja Ranjit Singh in English | sher-e-punjab

Essay on Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The name of Maharaja Ranjit Singh is written in golden letters of Indian history. This Mahavir of Punjab won many fierce battles on the strength of his courage and valor. Ranjit Singh’s father was the head of Sukarchakia Misl. In his childhood, Ranjit Singh was suffering from smallpox, due to which his left eye became blind.

Name             Ranjit Singh / Ranjit Singh
SurnameLion of Punjab
BirthNovember 13, 1780 Gunjarwala (West Punjab – present day part of Pakistan)
father’s nameMaha Singh
Mother’s nameRaj Kaur
wife’s nameMehtba Kaur
Availability  The founder of the Sikh Empire, honored with the title of Sher-i-Punjab (King of Lion)

Ranjit Singh, who had been facing challenges since adolescence, died when his father was only 12 years old (the year 1792). At the age of playing, little Ranjit Singh was made the Sardar of Misal, and he fulfilled that responsibility very well.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh was a very simple person by nature. Even after getting the title of Maharaja, Ranjit Singh used to sit on the land with his courtiers. He was famous for his liberal nature, justice and high spirit of equality for all religions. He was always working to remove the miseries and troubles of his subjects. The economic prosperity and protection of his subjects was as if his religion.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh ruled for about 40 years. He had made his kingdom so powerful and prosperous that during his life no invading army would dare to raise the eyes of his empire.

Some interesting facts related to the life of Maharaja Ranjit Singh / Maharaja Ranjit Singh Interesting Facts in Hindi 

  • The son of Maha Singh and Raj Kaur, Ranjit Singh became proficient in horse riding, sword fighting, and other fighting skills from the age of ten. At a young age, Ranjit Singh started going on different military campaigns with his father Maha Singh.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh had not received any formal education, he was illiterate.
  • Ranjit Singh, who defeated the opponents with his might, was attacked by a deadly attack at the tender age of 13. Kishore Ranjit Singh himself put the attacker Hashmat Khan to death.
  • The pain of smallpox in childhood, the loss of one eye, the grief of the death of his father at a young age, the sudden burden of workload, the attempt to murder himself, all these difficult incidents transformed Ranjit Singh into a strong steel.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh was married at the age of 16 to Mahtaba Kaur. His mother-in-law’s name was Sada Kaur. Seeing the advice and encouragement of Sada Kaur, Ranjit Singh attacked Ramgadiya, but he could not achieve success in that war.
  • No criminal was ever given capital punishment under his rule. Ranjit Singh was a very liberal king, even after winning a kingdom, he used to give some jagir to his enemy in return so that he could live his life.
  • It was Maharaja Ranjit Singh who got the Harmandir Sahib ie Golden Temple renovated.
  • He did many marriages, some people believe that he had 20 marriages.
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh neither used to eat beef nor did he give orders to his courtiers.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s might and victory campaign

Maharaja Ranjit Singh Life History in Hindi Empire

victory over lahore

1798 AD – In 1799 AD, the ruler of Afghanistan, Zamanshah attacked Lahore and easily occupied it, but due to the opposition of his half-brother Mahmud, Zamanshah did not have to return to Kabul. While returning to Kabul, some of his artillery had fallen in the river Jhelum. Ranjit Singh got these guns out of the river and sent them safely to Kabul. Jamanshah was very pleased on this matter and he allowed Ranjit Singh to take possession of Lahore. Immediately after this, Ranjit Singh attacked Lahore and on 7 July 1799, he took possession of Lahore.

Won various Misls of Punjab

  • Victory over Akalgarh in AD 1803.
  • Victory over Dang and Kasur in AD 1804.
  • Conquest of Amritsar in AD 1805.
  • Conquest of Gujarat in AD 1809.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh made the territories across the Sutlej under his control

  • In 1806, Doladhi village was captured.
  • In 1806, he won the victory over Ludhiana.
  • In 1807, he conquered Jeera Badni and Narayangarh.
  • Conquered Firozpur in 1807 itself.

Treaty of Amritsar 

Fearing the military campaigns of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh princely states settled across the Sutlej had requested the British for protection so that all of them could survive. Then on the request of those princely states, the Governor General Lord Minto sent Sir Charles Metcalf to Ranjit Singh to make a treaty with him. At first Ranjit Singh did not agree to the treaty proposal, but when Lord Minto sent a large army under the leadership of Ochterlony with Metcalf and he threatened British military power, Ranjit Singh had to bow to the demand of time.

In the end, tactfully, Maharaja Ranjit Singh made a treaty with the British on the date 25 April 1809 AD. In history, this treaty is called the Treaty of Amritsar.

Conquest of Kangra (AD 1809)

Amar Singh Thapa attacked Kangra in 1809. At that time Sansarchandra was on the throne there. At the time of trouble, at that time, Sansarchandra sought help from Ranjit Singh, then he immediately sent a huge army to help him, Amarsingh Thapa’s courage answered only after seeing the Sikh army coming in front and he along with the army left from there. escaped. In this way, the kingdom of Kangra also came under the control of Ranjit Singh.

Conquest of Multan (AD 1818)

At that time the ruler of Multan was Muzaffarkha, he faced the Sikh army valiantly but in the end he had to face defeat. Mishra Diwanchand and Khadg Singh fought that war on behalf of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and conquered Multan. In this way, Maharaja Ranjit Singh took Multan under his control in 1818.

Conquest of Cuttack kingdom (AD 1813)

In the year 1813, Maharaja Ranjit Singh had taken over the state of Cuttack, acting by diplomacy. It is said that he had acquired the authority over Cuttack in AD 1813 by giving a sum of one lakh rupees to the Governor of Cuttack State, Jahadand.

Conquest of Kashmir (AD 1819)

Maharaja Ranjit Singh had sent a huge army under the leadership of Mishra Diwanchand to attack Kashmir in 1819. At that time, the Afghan ruler Jabbar Khan ruled Kashmir. He fought fiercely against the Sikh army sent by Ranjit Singh, but he had to taste the defeat. Now Ranjit Singh had complete control over Kashmir too.

Conquest of Derajat (AD 1820-21)

Moving forward, in 1820-21, Maharaja Ranjit Singh had proved his authority by conquering Deragaji Khan, Ismailkha and Bannu successively.

Conquest of Peshawar (AD 1823-24)

In order to win Peshawar in 1823, Maharaja Ranjit Singh sent a huge army there. At that time, the Sikhs gave a crushing defeat to the Pathans in the battles of Jahangir and Nowshahra and won the Peshawar state. Under the leadership of the Maharaja, Peshawar was included in the complete Sikh Empire in 1834.

Conquest of Ladakh (AD 1836)

Death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh

The mighty mighty Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who made his place in Indian history, died in 1839 at the age of 58 . He took his last breath in Lahore. Even after centuries, he is remembered for his courage and valor. The credit of organizing the first Sikh Khalsa army also goes to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. After his death, his son Maharaja Kharak Singh took over his throne.

kohinoor diamond

After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, in 1845, the British attacked the Sikhs. In the battle of Firozpur, the commander of the Sikh army, Lal Singh betrayed his army and left his front and went to Lahore. At the same time, the British plundered the Kohinoor diamond from the Sikhs, and simultaneously snatched the state of Kashmir and the state of Hazara. The Kohinoor diamond was taken to London and placed there in the crown of Queen Victoria of Britain. It is said that jewelers carved the Kohinoor diamond for a month and eight days before it was placed on the crown of the Queen of Britain.